The field of Blood Pressure Instrument is by no means new.
Thus it becomes a necessity for the user to apprise himself about the latest technology from time to time.
Biomedical instrumentation will typically be classified into the most important types: clinical and research.
Clinical instrumentation is largely dedicated to the identification, care, and treatment of patients, whereas, research instrumentation is used primarily in the search of new data referring to the assorted systems that compose the human organism.
The major function of the clinical instrumentation is the measurement of physiological variables. A variable is any quantity whose value changes with time.
Arterial blood pressure
A variable associated with the physiological method of the body is named a physiological variable.
Examples of physiological variables employed in clinical drugs square measure temperature, the electrical activity of the heart (ECG), arterial blood pressure, and respiratory airflows.
Here, we will take up in detail the engineering methods and the development of instrumentation regarding the measurement of blood pressure.
As one of the physiological variables which will be quite without delay measured, pressure in thought-about a good indicator of the standing of the vascular system.
History of Blood Pressure Instrument has saved several persons from dangerous diseases and additionally in reducing deaths from a heart attack and heart disease.
Abnormal behavior of BP
Blood Pressure Instrument to keep a check on the abnormal behavior of BP, its menstruation has become a necessary apply by doctors.
Though measure BP could be a continuous method, it is common practice to measure the highest pressure and the lowest pressure in this cycle.
The highest pressure is the systolic blood pressure which is produced by contraction of the heart; the lowest pressure is that the pulsation pressure is that the pressure between heartbeats.
A typical or traditional BP is expressed as 120/80 torrs, wherever one hundred twenty is that the heartbeat pressure and 80 is the diastolic pressure.
Blood Pressure Instrument Measurement
This method is easy to use and can be automated.
BP Instrument by equalization
The sphygmometer measures BP Instrument by equalization atmospheric pressure against the pressure of blood in the artery.
Additionally Cuff Pressure
At this point, the “Korotkoff Sound” will cease. The point at which the “Korotkoff Sound” is muffled typically simply before it ceases is usually taken because of the blood pressure.
The sphygmomanometer technique is an auscultator method, i.e. it depends upon the operator recognizing the incidence and disappearance of “Korotkoff Sound” and correlating them with cuff pressure.
An alternative technique
An alternative technique, referred to as the touching technique, is except that the physician identifies the flow of blood within the artery by feeling the heartbeat of the patient downstream from the cuff rather than listening for the Korotkoff sound.
Although systolic pressure can easily be measured by the touching technique, blood pressure is far harder to identify.
As the higher than technique is far addicted to the person activity BP, attempts have been made to automate the indirect procedure. As a result, a number of automatic and semiautomatic systems have been developed.
Korotkoff sounds are recorded
Most devices of this type utilize a pressure electrical device connected to the pressure gage cuff, a microphone placed beneath the cuff, (over the artery) and a standard physiological recording system on which cuff pressure and also the Korotkoff sounds are recorded.
The basic procedure essentially parallels the manual method.
220 pressure units
The pressure cuff is automatically inflated to about 220 pressure units and allowed to deflate slowly. The microphone picks up the Korotkoff sounds from the artery close to the surface, just below the compression cuff.
The pressure reading at the time of the primary sound represents the blood pressure, the diastolic pressure is that the purpose of the falling pressure curve wherever the signal representing the last sound is seen.
A popular automatic BP meter is the programmed electro sphygmomanometer.
- Percutaneous insertion
- Catheterization (vessel cut down)
- Implantation of a transducer in a vessel or in the heart
Figure-5 below gives a general idea of the direct method.
ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE
The direct method does provide a continuous readout or recording of the BP waveform.
Major diagnostic technique
But this method has become a major diagnostic technique for analyzing the heart and other components of the cardiovascular system.
After glancing through all the available BP measuring instruments.
Direct activity or by one amongst 3 methods:
1. Percutaneous insertion
2. Catheterization (vessel cut down)
Figure-5 below gives a general idea of the direct method. Essentially, a long tube
ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE
Hence this method is risky and more painful to the patient.
The indirect technique, on the contrary, doesn’t need entrance into the body and is therefore safe and painless.
After glancing through all the accessible BP mensuration instruments.